4-Hydroxynonenal Mimics Ozone-induced Modulation of Macrophage Function Ex Vivo

Raymond F. Hamilton, Munir E. Hazbun, Cynthia A. Jumper, William L. Eschenbacher, Andrij Holian

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48 Scopus citations


Ozone is a ubiquitous pollutant that can cause acute pulmonary inflammation, cellular injury and may contribute to the development or exacerbation of chronic lung diseases. Despite much research, the effects of ozone on humans and potential cellular mechanisms of injury are still uncertain. However, ozone has been reported to increase the formation of aldehydes that could react with cellular proteins. Therefore, the purpose of these studies was to determine whether 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a previously unidentified aldehyde product of ozone exposure, is formed in human subjects exposed to ozone, and whether the response of human alveolar macrophages (AM) following a 1-h exposure to 0.25 ppm ozone with moderate exercise could be mimicked by in vitro incubation of AM with HNE. Western analysis demonstrated increased HNE protein adducts in airway fluid and alveolar macrophages after ozone exposure. AM were examined for endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-stimulated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release and expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72). Immediately after ozone exposure there was no change in HSP72, but a 5-fold increase occurred 4 h after exposure. By 18 h after exposure, HSP72 levels decreased to below comparable air-exposed levels. Immediately after ozone exposure there was no effect on IL-1β release stimulated by LPS. However, IL-1β release stimulated by LPS was significantly inhibited 4 h after ozone exposure. By 18 h after ozone exposure, IL-1β release stimulated by LPS returned to normal. Incubation of human AM in vitro with HNE induced HSP72 and blocked LPS-stimulated IL-1β release possibly by inhibiting interleukin converting enzyme. Consequently, the in vitro results and demonstration of HNE protein adducts following ozone exposure are consistent with HNE being involved in this process in vivo and suggest that the cellular toxic effects of ozone could be a result of thiol reactive aldehydes produced by ozone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-282
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1996


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