A mechanism of extreme growth and reliable signaling in sexually selected ornaments and weapons

Douglas J. Emlen, Ian A. Warren, Annika Johns, Ian Dworkin, Laura Corley Lavine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Many male animals wield ornaments or weapons of exaggerated proportions. We propose that increased cellular sensitivity to signaling through the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway may be responsible for the extreme growth of these structures. We document how rhinoceros beetle horns, a sexually selected weapon, are more sensitive to nutrition and more responsive to perturbation of the insulin/IGF pathway than other body structures. We then illustrate how enhanced sensitivity to insulin/IGF signaling in a growing ornament or weapon would cause heightened condition sensitivity and increased variability in expression among individuals - critical properties of reliable signals of male quality. The possibility that reliable signaling arises as a by-product of the growth mechanism may explain why trait exaggeration has evolved so many different times in the context of sexual selection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)860-864
Number of pages5
JournalScience
Volume337
Issue number6096
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 17 2012

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