Insufficient sleep and insomnia promote chronic disease in the general population and may combine with social and economic factors to increase rates of chronic health conditions among AI/AN people. Given that insufficient sleep and insomnia can be addressed via behavioral interventions, it is critical to understand the prevalence and correlates of these disorders among AI/AN individuals in order to elucidate the mechanisms associated with health disparities and provide guidance for subsequent treatment research and practice. We reviewed the available literature on insufficient sleep and insomnia in the AI/AN population. PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and ProQuest were searched between June 12th and October 28th of 2018. Prevalence of insufficient sleep ranged from 15% to 40%; insomnia prevalence ranged from 25% to 33%. Insufficient sleep was associated with unhealthy diet, low physical activity levels, higher BMI, worse self-reported health, increased risk for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, frequent mental distress, smoking, binge drinking, depression, and chronic pain. Insomnia was associated with depression, childhood abuse, PTSD, anxiety, alcohol use, low social support, and low trait-resilience levels. Research on evidence-based treatment and implementation practices targeting insufficient sleep and insomnia was lacking, and only one study described the development/validation of a measure of insufficient sleep among AI/AN people. There is a need for rigorous sleep research including testing and implementation of evidence-based treatment for insufficient sleep and insomnia in this population in an effort to help eliminate health disparities. We present recommendations for research and clinical practice based on the current review.