A Probabilistic Model for Designing Multimodality Landmine Detection Systems to Improve Rates of Advance

Jordan M. Malof, Kenneth D. Morton, Leslie M. Collins, Peter A. Torrione

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a popular and successful remote sensing modality that has been investigated for landmine detection. GPR offers excellent detection performance, but it is limited by a low rate of advance (ROA) due to its short sensing standoff distance. Standoff distance refers to the distance between the sensing platform and the location in front of the platform where the GPR senses the ground. Large standoff (high ROA) sensing modalities have been investigated as alternatives to the GPR, but they do not yet achieve comparable detection performance. This paper proposes a new sensor management approach, called multistate management (MSM), which combines large and short standoff sensors on the same platform in a way that leverages their respective advantages, yielding a system with better ROA and detection performance. MSM is more difficult to analyze than traditional systems because it allows sensor activity and system velocity to change over time. Therefore, a new probabilistic model based on queuing theory, called Q-MSM, is also proposed for analyzing and designing detection systems operating with MSM. Simulations were conducted using real field-collected data for a system with a large standoff forward-looking infrared camera and a GPR. The system is operated with MSM, and the results show that this leads to better ROA and detection performance than can be attained otherwise. Furthermore, the results show that Q-MSM can accurately predict the behavior of the MSM system, validating its utility for analyzing and designing such systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7484741
Pages (from-to)5258-5270
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2016


  • Forward looking
  • Sensor management
  • ground penetrating radar (GPR)
  • infrared
  • landmine detection
  • queuing theory
  • sensor fusion


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