Adaptation to persistent growth in the H9 cell line renders a primary isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sensitive to neutralization by vaccine sera

Terri Wrin, Tatjana P. Loh, Joann Charron Vennari, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Jack H. Nunberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Seven diverse primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were examined and found to be refractory to neutralization by antisera to recombinant gp120 (rgp120) protein from HIV-1 MN. This stands in marked contrast to the sensitivity exhibited by certain laboratory-adapted viruses. To understand the difference between primary and laboratory-adapted viruses, we adapted the primary virus ACH 168.10 to growth in the FDA/H9 cell line. ACH 168.10 was chosen because the V3 region of gp120 closely matches that of MN. After 4 weeks, infection became evident. The virus (168A) replicated in FDA/H9 cells with extensive cytopathic effect but was unchanged in sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization. Thus, growth in cell lines is not sufficient to render primary virus sensitive to neutralization. The 168A virus was, however, partially sensitive to CD4 immunoadhesin (CD4- Ig). Adaptation was continued to produce a persistently infected FDA/H9 culture that displayed minimal cytopathic effect. The virus (168C) was now sensitive to neutralization by MN rgp120 vaccine sera and by MN-specific monoclonal antibodies and showed increased sensitivity to HIVIG and CD4-Ig. 168C encoded three amino acid changes in gp120, including one within the V3 loop (I-166→R, I-282→N, G-318→R). MN-specific monoclonal antibodies bound equally to the surface of cells infected with either neutralization-resistant or -sensitive virus. The coincidence of changes in neutralization sensitivity with changes in cell tropism and cytopathic effect suggests a common underlying mechanism(s) acting through the whole of the envelope protein complex.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-48
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume69
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1995

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