Age and duration of ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, Southern Brasília Belt, central Brazil - Constraints from U-Pb geochronology, mineral rare earth element chemistry and trace-element thermometry

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Abstract

Integrated petrographic and chemical analysis of zircon, garnet and rutile from ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulites in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, Brazil, is used to constrain the significance of zircon ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronological data. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) profiles of zircon cores have positive-sloping heavy-REE patterns, commonly inferred to be magmatic, whereas unambiguous metamorphic grains and overgrowths have flat to slightly negatively sloping heavy-REE patterns. However, in one sample, a core of zircon interpreted as having formed prior to garnet crystallization and a metamorphic zircon formed within microstructures involving garnet breakdown both display elevated heavy-REE (and Y) with positive-sloping patterns. DREE(zrc/grt) partition coefficients suggest an approximation to equilibrium between zircon and garnet cores, although progressive enrichment in heavy REE towards garnet rims occurs in two of the samples investigated. Titanium-in-zircon thermometry indicates zircon growth during both the prograde and post-peak evolution, but not at peak temperatures of the UHT metamorphism. By contrast, zirconium-in-rutile thermometry of inclusions armoured by garnet records crystallization temperatures, based on the upper end of the interquartile range of the data, of ∼890 to 870°C and maximum temperature around 980°C, indicating prograde and retrograde growth close to and after peak conditions. Rutile located in retrograde microstruct records crystallization temperatures of 850 to 820°C. Rutile intergrown with ilmenite and included within orthopyroxene, which is associated with exsolved zircon, records temperatures ∼ 760°C, consistent with Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperatures. ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronological data from two of the four samples investigated define upper intercept ages of 641.3 ± 8.4Ma (MSWD 0.91) and 638.8 ± 2.5Ma (MSWD 1.03) that correlate with periods of zircon growth along the prograde segment of the P-T path. Individual zircon U-Pb dates retrieved from all samples range from 649 to 634Ma, indicating a maximum duration of c. 15Myr for the UHT event. This period is interpreted as recording modest thickening of hot backarc lithosphere located behind the Arenópolis Arc at the edge of the São Francisco Craton consequent upon terminal collision of the Parána Block with the arc during the amalgamation of West Gondwana. Journal compilation

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-233
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Metamorphic Geology
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2008

Keywords

  • Brasília Belt
  • Brazil
  • Garnet
  • Granulite
  • Trace elements
  • Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism
  • Zircon

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