Age of migration has been shown to have a robust association with Latino immigrant health outcomes; however, the relationship between timing of migration and cognition is less understood. Objective: To examine associations between race/ethnicity, nativity, age of migration, and cognitive aging among US-born (USB) non-Latino Whites (NLW) and USB and foreign-born Latinos 50 years and older. Methods: We used longitudinal biennial data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; 2006-2014) to fit generalized linear and linear latent growth curve models for: 1) global cognition (Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status; TICS-M); 2) memory and attention subdomains of TICS-M; and 3) cognitive dysfunction. We also tested for sex modifications. Results: In age and sex adjusted models, all Latino subgroups, independent of nativity and age of migration, had lower global and domain-specific cognitive scores and higher propensity of cognitive impairment classification compared to USB-NLWs. Differences between USB Latinos, but not other Latino subgroups, and USB-NLWs remained after full covariate adjustment. Latinas, independent of nativity or age of migration, had poorer cognitive scores relative to NLW females. Differences between all Latinos and USB-NLWs were principally expressed at baseline. Racial/ethnic, nativity, and age of migration grouping was not associated with slope (nor explained variance) of cognitive decline. Conclusion: Older US-born Latinos, regardless of sex exhibit poorer cognitive function than older USB-NLWs and foreign-born Latinos. Social determinants that differentially affect cognitive function, particularly those that compensate for education and sex differences among US-born Latinos and foreign-born Latinos, require further exploration.
- Alzheimer's disease and related dementias
- cognitive function
- sex differences