Air pollution and brain damage

Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Biagio Azzarelli, Hilda Acuna, Raquel Garcia, Todd M. Gambling, Norma Osnaya, Sylvia Monroy, Maria Del Rosario Tizapantzi, Johnny L. Carson, Anna Villarreal-Calderon, Barry Rewcastle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

423 Scopus citations


Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-κB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-389
Number of pages17
JournalToxicologic Pathology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002


  • Air pollution
  • Alzheimer's
  • BBB
  • Canines
  • Mexico City
  • NFκB
  • Nasal epithelia
  • iNOS


Dive into the research topics of 'Air pollution and brain damage'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this