Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome can be modified by physical activity and physical environment in ecuadorian adults: The ensanut-ecu study

Christian F. Juna, Yoonhee Cho, Dongwoo Ham, Hyojee Joung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The associations of lifestyle and environment with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease have recently resulted in increased attention in research. This study aimed to examine interactive associations among carbohydrate and fat intake, physical environment (i.e., elevation and humidity), lifestyle, and MetS among Ecuadorian adults. We used data from the Ecuador National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (ENSANUT-ECU), with a total of 6023 participants aged 20 to 60 years included in this study. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of status of carbohydrate and fat intake, low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LCHF) and medium-carbohydrate and fat (MCF) diet with MetS, where the high-carbohydrate low-fat (HCLF) diet was used as a reference. Women with LCHF and MCF diets showed lower prevalence of increased blood pressure (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19–0.59; OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32–0.79, respectively). Women with MCF diet also showed lower prevalence of elevated fasting glucose (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37–0.91). Moreover, there were negative associations between MetS and reduced HDL cholesterol in women with MCF diet residing in low relative humidity (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45–0.98) and in women with LCHF diet residing at a high elevation (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16–0.86). Additionally, higher prevalence of increased waist circumference was observed in men with both MFC and LCHF diets who were physically inactive (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.12–3.20; OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.19–4.60, respectively) and residing in high relative humidity (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08–2.89; OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.32–5.28, respectively). Our findings suggest that LCHF intake is associated with lower blood pressure, while MCF intake is associated with lower blood pressure and fasting glucose in Ecuadorian women. Furthermore, the associations of carbohydrate and fat intake with prevalence of MetS can be modified by physical activity, relative humidity, and elevation. The obtained outcomes may provide useful information for health programs focusing on dietary intake and lifestyle according to physical environment of the population to promote health and prevent metabolic diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1834
JournalNutrients
Volume13
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Carbohydrate and fat intake
  • ENSANUT-ECU
  • Elevation
  • Humidity
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Physical inactivity

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