Characteristics and health risks of personal exposure to particle-bound PAHs for Hong Kong adult residents: From ambient pollution to indoor exposure

Xiao Cui Chen, Tony J. Ward, Kin Fai Ho, Chinmoy Sarkar, Chris Webster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Research on individual level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure is scarce. Moreover, the independent contribution of ambient- and indoor-origin PAHs to personal exposure remains poorly studied. We performed simultaneous ambient, residential indoor, and personal exposure measurements in a panel of healthy adults to investigate particle-bound PAHs, focusing on their carcinogenic congeners (cPAHs). Average PAH concentrations were much higher in ambient and residential indoor than personal exposure, with distinct seasonal variations. We employed chrysene as a tracer to investigate residential indoor and personal PAHs exposure by origin. Personal cPAH exposure was largely attributable to ambient-origin exposures (95.8%), whereas a considerable proportion of residential indoor PAHs was likely attributable to indoor emissions (33.8%). Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentrations of cPAH accounted for 95.2%‒95.6% of total carcinogenic potential. Uncertainties in estimated PAHs (and BaPeq) exposure and cancer risks for adults were calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation. Cancer risks attributable to ambient, residential indoor, and personal cPAH inhalation exposures ranged from 4.0 × 10−6 to 1.0 × 10−5. A time-activity weighted model was employed for personal PAH exposure estimations. Estimated cPAH exposures demonstrate high cancer risks for adults in Hong Kong, suggesting that exposure to indoor-generated PAHs should be of great concern to the general population.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12956
JournalIndoor Air
Volume32
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Characteristics and health risks of personal exposure to particle-bound PAHs for Hong Kong adult residents: From ambient pollution to indoor exposure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this