Curvilinear dose-response relationship of carbohydrate (0-120 g·h-1) and performance

Johneric W. Smith, David D. Pascoe, Dennis H. Passe, Brent C. Ruby, Laura K. Stewart, Lindsay B. Baker, Jeffrey J. Zachwieja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Background: There is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal range of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion rates recommended for endurance athletes. Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between CHO dose and cycling time trial performance to identify an optimal range of CHO ingestion rates for endurance performance. Methods: Fifty-one cyclists and triathletes (28 ± 7 yr, mean ± SD) across four research sites completed four trials. Each trial consisted of a 2-h constant load ride at 95% of the workload that elicited a 4-mmol·L blood lactate concentration immediately followed by a computer-simulated 20-km time trial, which subjects were asked to complete as quickly as possible. Twelve CHO electrolyte (18 mmol·L-1 Na, 3 mmol·L-1 K, and 11 mmol·L-1 Cl) beverages (three at each site) were tested in a double-blind manner, providing subjects 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 g CHO (1:1:1 glucose-fructose-maltodextrin) per hour during the 2-h constant load ride at a fluid intake rate of 1 L·h. All subjects also consumed a noncaloric placebo on one counterbalanced test occasion. Data were natural log transformed, subjected to a mixed-model analysis, and are reported as adjusted treatment means. Results: We estimate incremental performance improvements of 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 4.7% at 9, 19, 31, 48, and 78 g·h, respectively, with diminishing performance enhancement seen at CHO levels >78 g·h. Conclusions: CHO beverage ingestion and endurance (∼160 min) performance appear to be related in a curvilinear dose-response manner, with the best performance occurring with a CHO (1:1:1 glucose-fructose-maltodextrin) ingestion rate of 78 g·h.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-341
Number of pages6
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013


  • Cycling
  • carbohydrate ingestion rate
  • time trial


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