Class I MHC molecules bind intracellular peptides for presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Identification of peptides presented by class I molecules during infection is therefore a priority for detecting and targeting intracellular pathogens. To understand which host-encoded peptides distinguish HIV-infected cells, we have developed a mass spectrometric approach to characterize HLA-B*0702 peptides unique to or up-regulated on infected T cells. In this study, we identify 15 host proteins that are differentially presented on infected human T cells. Pep-tides with increased expression on HIV-infected cells were derived from multiple categories of cellular proteins including RNA binding proteins and cell cycle regulatory proteins. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of the B*0702 peptide repertoire demonstrates that marked differences in host protein presentation occur after HIV infection.