Diverse University Students Across the United States Reveal Promising Pathways to Hunter Recruitment and Retention

Victoria R. Vayer, Lincoln R. Larson, M. Nils Peterson, Kangjae Jerry Lee, Richard Von Furstenberg, Daniel Y. Choi, Kathryn Stevenson, Adam A. Ahlers, Christine Anhalt-Depies, Taniya Bethke, Jeremy Bruskotter, Christopher J. Chizinski, Brian Clark, Ashley A. Dayer, Benjamin Ghasemi, Larry Gigliotti, Alan Graefe, Kris Irwin, Samuel J. Keith, Matt KellyGerard Kyle, Elizabeth Metcalf, Wayde Morse, Mark D. Needham, Neelam Poudyal, Michael Quartuch, Shari Rodriguez, Chelsie Romulo, Ryan L. Sharp, William Siemer, Matt Springer, Richard Stedman, Taylor Stein, Tim Van Deelen, Jason Whiting, Richelle L. Winkler, Kyle Maurice Woosnam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Declining participation in hunting, especially among young adult hunters, affects the ability of state and federal agencies to achieve goals for wildlife management and decreases revenue for conservation. For wildlife agencies hoping to engage diverse audiences in hunter recruitment, retention, and reactivation (R3) efforts, university settings provide unique advantages: they contain millions of young adults who are developmentally primed to explore new activities, and they cultivate a social atmosphere where new identities can flourish. From 2018 to 2020, we surveyed 17,203 undergraduate students at public universities across 22 states in the United States to explore R3 potential on college campuses and assess key demographic, social, and cognitive correlates of past and intended future hunting behavior. After weighting to account for demographic differences between our sample and the larger student population, 29% of students across all states had hunted in the past. Students with previous hunting experience were likely to be white, male, from rural areas or hunting families, and pursuing degrees related to natural resources. When we grouped students into 1 of 4 categories with respect to hunting (i.e., non-hunters [50%], potential hunters [22%], active hunters [26%], and lapsed hunters [3%]), comparisons revealed differences based on demographic attributes, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Compared to active hunters, potential hunters were more likely to be females or racial and ethnic minorities, and less likely to experience social support for hunting. Potential hunters valued game meat and altruistic reasons for hunting, but they faced unique constraints due to lack of hunting knowledge and skills. Findings provide insights for marketing and programming designed to achieve R3 objectives with a focus on university students.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1017-1030
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Wildlife Management
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • R3
  • college students
  • constraints
  • hunting
  • motivations
  • segmentation
  • wildlife values


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