Effects of deep water and treadmill running on oxygen uptake and energy expenditure in seasonally trained cross country runners

J. M. Demaere, B. C. Ruby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Objective. The purpose of this study was to physiologically compare submaximal intensity deep water running (DWR) and treadmill running (TMR) exercise in trained athletes. Experimental design. Pre-test, post-test, 2x2 factoral design. Setting. Treadmill exercise tests occurred in the Human performance Laboratory DWR trials took place in the deep end of the University pool. Participants. Seasonally trained college-aged male cross country runners (N = 8). Subjects completed a treadmill maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) test, followed by a submaximal treadmill and deep water run at heart rates equivalent to 60% and 80% treadmill V̇O2max. Measures. Oxygen consumption (V̇O2), ventilation (VE(stpd)), rates of perceived exertion (RPE), energy expenditure (kcal · min-1), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), fat and carbohydrate oxidation (g · min-1) were measured during two 5 minute steady state stages for both trials. Results. The trial by intensity interaction for VE(stpd) was significant, demonstrating greater ventilation during DWR as compared to TMR at 80% V̇O2max. The main effect of trial demonstrated that significantly higher RER and carbohydrate oxidation, and lower fat oxidation occurred during DWR as compared to TMR. V̇O2, RPE, and energy expenditure did not differ significantly between trials. Conclusions. DWR is a comparable form of submaximal intensity exercise as TMR in well-trained athletes. DWR does, however, maintain unique properties that differs it from TMR. Therefore, the concept of training specificity should be further considered when prescribing DWR and using it as an enhancement tool or substitute for dry land running.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-181
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1997


  • Deep water running
  • Energy metabolism
  • Oxygen consumption
  • Running physiology


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of deep water and treadmill running on oxygen uptake and energy expenditure in seasonally trained cross country runners'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this