Effects of the DNA repair inhibitors, cytosine arabinoside and 3-aminobenzamide, on the frequency of radiation-induced micronuclei, nuclear buds, and nucleoplasmic bridges

Yoon Hee Cho, Yang Jee Kim, Sunyeong Lee, Kyung in Joung, Hai Won Chung, Sunmi Kim, Su Young Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Micronuclei (MN), nuclear bud (NBud), and nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) are suggested as biomarkers for radiation exposure; however, they have not been extensively studied to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for their formation. Objectives: To (1) validate NBud and NPB within the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay as biomarkers for radiation exposure and (2) determine the effects of the DNA repair inhibitors, cytosine arabinoside (Ara C) and 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) on radiation-induced MN, NBud, and NPB formation. Methods: Human blood samples were irradiated with 0–3 Gy X-rays and subsequently treated with Ara C and 3-AB. CBMN and chromosome aberration assays were carried out to measure MN, NBud, and NPB and dicentric chromosomes, respectively. Results: The frequency of radiation-induced MN, NBud, and NPB increased in a dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN, NBud, and NPB was highly and positively correlated with the dicentric chromosome, a standard biomarker for biodosimetry (r > 0.98, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, Ara C increased the frequency of MN, NBud, and NPB, whereas 3-AB increased the frequency of MN and NPB, but not NBud. Further, the potentiating effect of Ara C on the frequency of MN, NBud, and NPB was greater than that of 3-AB. Conclusion: Our results validate NBuds and NPBs as independent valuable markers of radiation exposure. Additionally, we suggest that different mechanisms are likely involved in the formation of NBuds and NPBs following X-irradiation; however, additional studies are warranted to better understand the contribution of distinct DNA repair pathways to the formation of radiation-induced damages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-680
Number of pages8
JournalGenes and Genomics
Volume42
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020

Keywords

  • DNA repair inhibitors
  • Micronuclei
  • Nuclear buds
  • Nucleoplasmic bridges
  • X-rays

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