Filamentous bacteriophage promote biofilm assembly and function

Patrick R. Secor, Johanna M. Sweere, Lia A. Michaels, Andrey V. Malkovskiy, Daniel Lazzareschi, Ethan Katznelson, Jayakumar Rajadas, Michael E. Birnbaum, Allison Arrigoni, Kathleen R. Braun, Stephen P. Evanko, David A. Stevens, Werner Kaminsky, Pradeep K. Singh, William C. Parks, Paul L. Bollyky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

196 Scopus citations


Biofilms - communities of bacteria encased in a polymer-rich matrix - confer bacteria with the ability to persist in pathologic host contexts, such as the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. How bacteria assemble polymers into biofilms is largely unknown. We find that the extracellular matrix produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa self-assembles into a liquid crystal through entropic interactions between polymers and filamentous Pf bacteriophages, which are long, negatively charged filaments. This liquid crystalline structure enhances biofilm function by increasing adhesion and tolerance to desiccation and antibiotics. Pf bacteriophages are prevalent among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates and were detected in CF sputum. The addition of Pf bacteriophage to sputum polymers or serum was sufficient to drive their rapid assembly into viscous liquid crystals. Fd, a related bacteriophage of Escherichia coli, has similar biofilm-building capabilities. Targeting filamentous bacteriophage or the liquid crystalline organization of the biofilm matrix may represent antibacterial strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549-559
Number of pages11
JournalCell Host and Microbe
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 11 2015


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