Gender performance stress and risk for psychopathology: Looking beyond sexual orientation

Kathryn M. Oost, Nicholas A. Livingston, Hillary A. Gleason, Bryan N. Cochran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The authors review research on the risk factors for, and prevalence of, psychological disorders as they relate to gender nonconformity in adolescence and adulthood. Findings from existing literature suggest gender nonconforming individuals are more likely to experience a variety of risk factors associated with psychopathology when compared with general and sexual minority populations. Associated with these risk factors, gender nonconforming individuals also report higher rates of psychopathology as well. The authors propose more research that examines gender nonconformity as an independent line of inquiry that transcends sexual orientation and gender identity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-248
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of LGBT Youth
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2 2016


  • Gender nonconformity
  • minority stress
  • psychopathology
  • psychosocial stressors
  • victimization


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