We assessed polymorphisms in exon IV of the κ-casein gene (CSN3) in ten different breeds of domestic goat (Capra hircus) from three continents and in three related wild caprine taxa (Capra 〈ibex〉 ibex, Capra 〈ibex〉 sibirica and Capra aegagrus). Thirty-five DNA samples were sequenced within a 558 bp fragment of exon IV. Nine polymorphic sites were identified in domestic goat, including four new polymorphisms. In addition to four previously described polymorphic positions, a total of 13 polymorphisms allowed the identification of 13 DNA variants, corresponding to 10 protein variants. Because of conflicting nomenclature of these variants, we propose a standardized allele designation. CSN3*A, CSN3*B, and CSN3*D were found as widely distributed alleles in European goat breeds. Within Capra ibex we identified three variants and showed that the sequence of Capra aegagrus is identical to the most common Capra hircus variant, consistent with Capra aegagrus being the wild progenitor of domestic goats. A dendrogram was drawn to represent the molecular network between the caprine CSN3 variants.