Identifying perceptions of professionalism in pharmacy using a four-frame leadership model.

Dennis F. Thompson, Kevin C. Farmer, Donna G. Beall, David J. Evans, Russell B. Melchert, Leigh Ann Ross, Beverly J. Schmoll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: To determine whether professionalism in pharmacy education is addressed from Bolman and Deal's four-frame leadership model. METHODS: Students (N=624), faculty (N=57), preceptors (N=56), and academic administrators (N=8) at 6 colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed to assess professionalism. Using grounded theory methodology and a constant comparative process, common themes were identified for each question in each group. Themes were assigned to the four-frame model and the data were compared. RESULTS: Mechanisms of addressing professionalism consistent with all 4 frames of the Bolman and Deal's model were identified. Faculty assessment of student professionalism was significantly lower (P<0.05) than the student group, preceptors, and administrators. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanisms of addressing professionalism in pharmacy education span all four frames of Bolman and Deal's leadership model. The values students bring into a pharmacy program may play an important role in the process of professional socialization. Faculty members have a tremendous opportunity to enhance student professionalism with their daily verbal and nonverbal interactions with students.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90
Number of pages1
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 15 2008


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