Immunotoxicity and environment: Immunodysregulation and systemic inflammation in children

Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Mercedes MacÍas-Parra, Hans J. Hoffmann, Gildardo Valencia-Salazar, Carlos Henríquez-Roldán, Norma Osnaya, Ofelia Camacho Del Monte, Gerardo Barragán-Mejía, Rodolfo Villarreal-Calderon, Lina Romero, Margarita Granada-Macías, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Humberto Medina-Cortina, Robert R. Maronpot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Environmental pollutants, chemicals, and drugs have an impact on children's immune system development. Mexico City (MC) children exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants exhibit chronic respiratory inflammation, systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and cognitive deficits. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to severe air pollution plays a role in the immune responses of asymptomatic, apparently healthy children. Blood measurements for markers of immune function, inflammatory mediators, and molecules interacting with the lipopolysaccharide recognition complex were obtained from two cohorts of matched children (aged 9.7 ± 1.2 years) from southwest Mexico City (SWMC) (n = 66) and from a control city (n = 93) with criteria pollutant levels below current standards. MC children exhibited significant decreases in the numbers of natural killer cells (p =.003) and increased numbers of mCD14+ monocytes (p <.001) and CD8+ cells (p =.02). Lower concentrations of interferon (p =.009) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (p <.001), an endotoxin tolerance-like state, systemic inflammation, and an anti-inflammatory response were also present in the highly exposed children. C-reactive protein and the prostaglandin E metabolite levels were positively correlated with twenty-four- and forty-eight-hour cumulative concentrations of PM2.5. Exposure to urban air pollution is associated with immunodysregulation and systemic inflammation in children and is a major health threat.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-169
Number of pages9
JournalToxicologic Pathology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2009


  • Air pollution
  • Children
  • Endotoxin tolerance
  • Immunity
  • Natural killer cells
  • Particulate matter
  • Systemic inflammation


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