Influence of hip abductor strength on functional outcomes before and after total knee arthroplasty: Post HOC analysis of a randomized controlled trial

Brian J. Loyd, Jason M. Jennings, Dana L. Judd, Raymond H. Kim, Pamela Wolfe, Douglas A. Dennis, Jennifer E. Stevens-Lapsley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with declines in hip abductor (HA) muscle strength; however, a longitudinal analysis demonstrating the influence of TKA on trajectories of HA strength change has not been conducted. Objective. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in HA strength from pre-TKA through 3 months post-TKA and to characterize the relationship between HA strength changes and physical performance. Design. This study is a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Methods. Data from 162 participants (89 women, mean age = 63 y) were used for analysis. Data were collected by masked assessors preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months following surgery. Outcomes included: Timed "Up and Go" test (TUG), Stair Climbing Test (SCT), Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and walking speed. Paired t tests were used for between- and within-limb comparisons of HA strength. Multivariable regression was used to determine contributions of independent variables, HA and knee extensor strength, to the dependent variables of TUG, SCT, 6MWT, and walking speed at each time point. Results. Hip abductor strength was significantly lower in the surgical limb pre-TKA (mean = 0.015; 95% CI = 0.010-0.020), 1 month post-TKA (0.028; 0.023-0.034), and 3 months post-TKA (0.02; 0.014-0.025) compared with the nonsurgical limb. Hip abductor strength declined from pre-TKA to 1 month post-TKA (18%), but not at the 3-month time point (0%). Hip abductor strength independently contributed to performance-based outcomes pre-TKA; however, this contribution was not observed post-TKA. Limitations. The post hoc analysis prevents examining all outcomes likely to be influenced by HA strength. Conclusions. Surgical limb HA strength is impaired prior to TKA, and worsens following surgery. Furthermore, HA strength contributes to performance-based outcomes, supporting the hypothesis that HA strength influences functional recovery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)896-903
Number of pages8
JournalPhysical Therapy
Volume97
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017

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