Kindergarten reading skill level and change as risk factors for chronic problem behavior

Kent McIntosh, Carol Sadler, Jacqueline A. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


In this study, the authors explored the effect of prereading skills at the start of kindergarten and change in skills during kindergarten on response to Tier I (universal) Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in Grade 5. A longitudinal data set of 473 students, including Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures at the start, middle, and end of kindergarten and office discipline referrals in Grade 5, was used to determine whether reading skills at school entry or change in reading skills over the course of kindergarten were more predictive of chronic problem behavior in Grade 5. Results of logistic regression analyses indicated that low initial phonological awareness predicted problem behavior, but including skill growth in the model resulted in significantly improved and more accurate prediction. Results are discussed in terms of early screening and intervention and reducing risk for problem behavior through quality Tier I reading instruction in kindergarten.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-28
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Positive Behavior Interventions
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • academic assessment
  • instruction
  • prevention of
  • reading


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