Objective: While improving glycemic control with antihyperglycemics has been demonstrated to reduce microvascular complications, the benefits of reduction in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have not been demonstrated with older agents. This article reviews current evidence of the CV outcomes of newer antihyperglycemics approved since 2008. Data Sources: Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE (1966 to October 31, 2018) using search terms exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, semaglutide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), and stroke. Study Selection and Data Extraction: A total of 12 pertinent double-blinded randomized controlled trials were included. Data Synthesis: Liraglutide, empagliflozin, and canagliflozin have been shown in patients with CV diseases and high risk of developing CV disease to be superior to placebo in improving CV outcomes. Saxagliptin and alogliptin have both been demonstrated to increase HF hospitalization, whereas sitagliptin has not. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: In contrast to older-generation antihyperglycemics, selected new antihyperglycemic agents have been shown to be superior to placebo in improving CV outcomes. Clinicians may now be able to provide high-risk patients agents that not only help in providing glycemic control, but also prevent both macrovascular and microvascular complications. Conclusion: Liraglutide, empagliflozin, and canagliflozin have been shown to be superior to placebo in improving CV outcomes. However, there are differences among agents in terms of HF and peripheral arterial disease outcomes. Future studies should focus on evaluating other clinical CV outcomes in patients without existing CVD and perhaps single drug regimens for diabetes.
- dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors
- glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist
- heart disease
- heart failure
- sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors