Merging elaboration and the theory of planned behavior to understand bear spray behavior of day hikers in Yellowstone National Park

Zachary D. Miller, Wayne Freimund, Elizabeth Covelli Metcalf, Norma Nickerson, Robert B. Powell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    This research empirically merges together two related theories: the elaboration likelihood model and the theory of planned behavior. A structural equation modeling approach is used to evaluate the relationship between the two theories and their collective impacts on behavioral intentions. The results suggest elaboration predicts the components of the theory of planned behavior (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control), which in turn all predicted behavior intentions. Furthermore, results showed that the components of the theory of planned behavior partially meditated the relationship between elaboration and behavioral intentions, indicating that elaboration works mostly through the components of the theory of planned behavior to impact behavioral intentions. This study represents an improved understanding of the influence of communication techniques on visitor behaviors in sustainable tourism settings. Additionally, the discussion exemplifies how these techniques can be used to improve communications and evaluate communication strategies.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)366-378
    Number of pages13
    JournalEnvironmental Management
    Volume63
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Mar 15 2019

    Keywords

    • Behavior
    • Communication
    • Elaboration
    • Parks
    • Protected areas
    • Wildlife

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