Monitoring programs to assess reintroduction efforts: A critical component in recovery

Erin Muths, Victoria Dreitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Reintroduction is a powerful tool in our conservation toolbox. However, the necessary follow-up, i.e. long-term monitoring, is not commonplace and if instituted may lack rigor. We contend that valid monitoring is possible, even with sparse data. We present a means to monitor based on demographic data and a projection model using the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxten) as an example. Using an iterative process, existing data is built upon gradually such that demographic estimates and subsequent inferences increase in reliability. Reintroduction and defensible monitoring may become increasingly relevant as the outlook for amphibians, especially in tropical regions, continues to deteriorate and emergency collection, captive breeding, and reintroduction become necessary. Rigorous use of appropriate modeling and an adaptive approach can validate the use of reintroduction and substantially increase its value to recovery programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-56
Number of pages10
JournalAnimal Biodiversity and Conservation
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2008


  • Adaptive processes
  • Amphibians
  • Bufo baxteri
  • Monitoring
  • Reintroduction


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