Morphological and Behavioral Correlates of Flapping Flight

Bret W. Tobalske, Douglas R. Warrick, Brandon E. Jackson, Kenneth P. Dial

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

8 Scopus citations
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLiving Dinosaurs
Subtitle of host publicationThe Evolutionary History of Modern Birds
PublisherJohn Wiley and Sons
Number of pages25
ISBN (Print)9780470656662
StatePublished - Apr 20 2011


  • Active flight in birds, and wing flapping - greater power output than swimming, walking or running
  • Evolution of key avian attributes - morphological and behavioral correlates of flapping flight
  • Flight speed, affecting type of wing posture - during intermittent pauses in some species
  • Functional morphology of wing - primary flight muscles, major downstroke muscle, the pectoralis, and major upstroke muscle, the supracoracoideus
  • Locomotor development during ontogeny - in chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) from hatching to adulthood
  • Ontogeny, as a model for evolution of flapping flight - cursorial hypotheses, that ancestors of birds ran bipedally using long and slender theropod hind limbs
  • Power for flight, as a function of flight speed - according to a U-shaped curve
  • Primary flight muscles in bird flight - the supracoracoideus (SUPRA) and pectoralis (PECT)
  • Wing and feather development - for chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) during ontogeny
  • Wing-tip reversal (supination) - during upstroke of slow flight in a rock dove

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