Nasal inflammatory responses in children exposed to a polluted urban atmosphere

Lilian Calderon-Garciduenas, Antonio Rodriguez-Alcaraz, Raquel Garcia, Leticia Ramirez, Gerardo Barragan

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Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) preadolescent children have been exposed to a highly polluted urban atmosphere most of their lives. The main objective of this study was to determine by nasal lavage (NAL) the acute inflammatory nasal influx elicited in these children upon exposure to three different polluted days. Ozone, the main criteria pollutant for SWMMC, varied both in the number of hours above the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), which is 0.12 ppm as a 1-h maximum concentration not to be exceeded more than once per year, and in the maximal concentrations in the preceding three NAL sampling dates. Nasal neutrophilic influx, the surface expression of the B2 integrin CD11b on the nasal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), rhinoscopic findings, respiratory symptoms, and nasal cytologies were evaluated in the 38 exposed children and in the 28 control children living in a nonpolluted Pacific coast port. SWMMC children had an average daily outdoor exposure of 7.7 h and complained of nasal mucus secretion, epistaxis, intermittent nasal obstruction, diurnal cough episodes, and chest discomfort. Nasal mucosal atrophy by rhinoscopy was present in 37/38, and all children had an abnormal nasal cytology. Exposed children had significantly higher nasal PMNs and nasal PMN-CD11b expression than controls. PMN median values in exposed children were higher than controls on all sampling dates (November 12, p <.001; November 17, p <.001; and November 24, p <.00001). Interestingly, a lower nasal neutrophilic response fp <.0004) was recorded in the

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-437
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1995


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