Nyaya Methodology and Western Mathematical Logic: Origins and Implications

Martin Schmidt, Bharath Sriraman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


In this chapter, we compare the Nyaya school of logic, one of the six major schools of Hindu philosophy to Aristotelian logic. In particular, we compare the intent, nature, and structure of syllogisms in the Nyaya School of logic to that in Western mathematical logic to highlight differences in premises and conclusions. In doing so, we draw on the foundational writings and commentaries on Nyaya methodology from both Hindu and Buddhist sources, as well as the major sources of Aristotelian logic. We explore the possibility of Nyaya methodology being influenced by Aristotelian logic before arguing that the Nyaya system developed on its own trajectory. Some modern implications of Nyaya methodology are also given.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of the Mathematics of the Arts and Sciences
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)9783319570723
ISBN (Print)9783319570716
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • Aristotelian logic
  • Buddhist logic
  • Hindu philosophy
  • Indian philosophy
  • Law of contrapositive
  • Mathematical logic
  • Milinda
  • Natural numbers
  • Nyaya logic
  • Syllogisms


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