NLRP3 inflammasome activation occurs in response to hazardous particle exposures and is critical for the development of particle-induced lung disease. Mechanisms of Lysosome Membrane Permeabilization (LMP), a central pathway for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhaled particles, are not fully understood. We demonstrate that the lysosomal vATPases inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 blocked LMP in vitro and ex vivo in primary murine macrophages following exposure to silica, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and titanium nanobelts. Bafilomycin A1 treatment of particle-exposed macrophages also resulted in decreased active cathepsin L in the cytosol, a surrogate measure for leaked cathepsin B, which was associated with less NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Silica-induced LMP was partially dependent upon lysosomal cathepsins B and L, whereas nanoparticle-induced LMP occurred independent of cathepsin activity. Furthermore, inhibition of lysosomal cathepsin activity with CA-074-Me decreased the release of High Mobility Group Box 1. Together, these data support the notion that lysosome acidification is a prerequisite for particle-induced LMP, and the resultant leak of lysosome cathepsins is a primary regulator of ongoing NLRP3 inflammasome activity and release of HMGB1.
- Lysosome membrane permeabilization
- NLRP3 Inflammasome