Physiological, perceptual, and biomechanical differences between treadmill and overground walking in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

D. M. Vickery-Howe, D. R. Bonanno, B. J. Dascombe, J. R. Drain, A. C. Clarke, B. Hoolihan, R. W. Willy, K. J. Middleton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to compare physiological, perceptual and biomechanical outcomes between walking on a treadmill and overground surfaces. Five databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science) were searched until September 2022. Included studies needed to be a crossover design comparing biomechanical, physiological, or perceptual measures between motorised-treadmill and overground walking in healthy adults (18–65 years) walking at the same speed (<5% difference). The quality of studies were assessed using a modified Downs and Black Quality Index. Meta-analyses were performed to determine standardised mean difference ± 95% confidence intervals for all main outcome measures. Fifty-five studies were included with 1,005 participants. Relative oxygen consumption (standardised mean difference [95% confidence interval] 0.38 [0.14,0.63]) and cadence (0.22 [0.06,0.38]) are higher during treadmill walking. Whereas stride length (−0.36 [−0.62,-0.11]) and step length (−0.52 [−0.98,-0.06]) are lower during treadmill walking. Most kinetic variables are different between surfaces. The oxygen consumption, spatiotemporal and kinetic differences on the treadmill may be an attempt to increase stability due to the lack of control, discomfort and familiarity on the treadmill. Treadmill construction including surface stiffness and motor power are likely additional constraints that need to be considered and require investigation. This research was supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) scholarship. Protocol registration is CRD42020208002 (PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) in October 2020.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-33
Number of pages33
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Volume41
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Gait
  • biomechanics
  • locomotion
  • marching
  • physiology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Physiological, perceptual, and biomechanical differences between treadmill and overground walking in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this