Privately protected areas in increasingly turbulent social contexts: strategic roles, extent, and governance

William Thomas Borrie, Trace Gale, Keith Bosak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This paper considers increasing global reliance on privately protected areas (PPAs) and associated nature-based tourism (NBT). A targeted literature review was guided by three research questions, which sought to understand how neoliberal concepts and dynamics manifest in private forms of conservation; how private forms of conservation have manifested in Chile; and, how Chileans’ attitudes towards their government’s neoliberal policies might affect their expectations of PPAs. The search strategy resulted in 284 resources. Three dimensions of neoliberal approaches to PPAs emerged from the data each highlighting specific vulnerabilities: a loss of the social embeddedness of nature; an imposition of global, capital dynamics; and conflicting discourses and assumptions. Results suggest that, in order to improve long-term support and integration of PPAs and NBT, greater attention needs to be given to social well-being outcomes (including equity and justice concerns), building of social capital, and the preservation of local identities and histories. Additionally, regional and PPA-specific land-use planning needs to incorporate greater public engagement, cross-jurisdictional coordination, and transparent and inclusive decision-making.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2631-2648
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Sustainable Tourism
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2022


  • Chile
  • Protected area management
  • market-based conservation
  • nature-based tourism
  • neoliberalism
  • private land conservation


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