Privately protected areas in increasingly turbulent social contexts: strategic roles, extent, and governance

William Thomas Borrie, Trace Gale, Keith Bosak

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This paper considers increasing global reliance on privately protected areas (PPAs) and associated nature-based tourism (NBT). A targeted literature review was guided by three research questions, which sought to understand how neoliberal concepts and dynamics manifest in private forms of conservation; how private forms of conservation have manifested in Chile; and, how Chileans’ attitudes towards their government’s neoliberal policies might affect their expectations of PPAs. The search strategy resulted in 284 resources. Three dimensions of neoliberal approaches to PPAs emerged from the data each highlighting specific vulnerabilities: a loss of the social embeddedness of nature; an imposition of global, capital dynamics; and conflicting discourses and assumptions. Results suggest that, in order to improve long-term support and integration of PPAs and NBT, greater attention needs to be given to social well-being outcomes (including equity and justice concerns), building of social capital, and the preservation of local identities and histories. Additionally, regional and PPA-specific land-use planning needs to incorporate greater public engagement, cross-jurisdictional coordination, and transparent and inclusive decision-making.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2631-2648
    Number of pages18
    JournalJournal of Sustainable Tourism
    Issue number11
    StatePublished - 2022


    • Chile
    • market-based conservation
    • nature-based tourism
    • neoliberalism
    • private land conservation
    • Protected area management


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