Simulating the effects of possible environmental changes on the forest carbon budget requires the use of calibrated and tested models of ecosystem processes. A recently proposed simulation approach based on the use of the BIOME-BGC model was applied to yield estimates of present carbon fluxes and pools in Tuscany forests (central Italy). After the validation of these estimates against existing ground data, the simulation approach was used to assess the impact of plausible climate changes (+2 °C and increased CO2 concentration) on forest carbon dynamics (gross primary production (GPP), net primary production (NPP), and relevant allocations). The results indicate that the temperature change tends to inhibit all production and allocation processes, which are instead enhanced by the CO2 concentration rise. The combination of the two factors leads to a general increase in both GPP and NPP that is higher for deciduous oaks and chestnut (+30% and 24% for GPP and +42% and 31% for NPP, respectively). Additionally, vegetation carbon is slightly increased, while total soil carbon remains almost unchanged with respect to the present conditions. These findings are analyzed with reference to the Tuscany forest situation and previous studies on the subject.