We have examined in detail the RNA coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in methotrexate-resistant mouse cells. We find four distinct DHFR messengers, ranging in size from 750 to 1600 nucleotides. All four are polyadenylated and polysomal and can be translated in vitro to produce a 21,000 dalton protein co-migrating with purified dihydrofolate reductase on SDS polyacrylamide gels. The major difference in these RNAs is the length of 3′ untranslated regions, varying from about 80 nucleotides in the smallest mRNA to about 930 nucleotides in the largest. The RNAs are also present in methotrexate-sensitive murine cells and mouse liver. Multiple DHFR RNAs are found in the poly(A)+ RNA of methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells but are of different molecular weights than the mouse messengers. We discuss these results in terms of the function of 3′ untranslated regions of eucaryotic mRNAs and the possible origin and significance of multiple messenger RNAs for a single protein.