Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors Among Heart Failure With Mildly Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction

Judy W.M. Cheng, Vincent Colucci, James S. Kalus, Sarah A. Spinler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: Results from large placebo-controlled randomized trials in patients with heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) have become available recently. This article discusses results of these clinical trials. Data Sources: Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE (1966 to December 31, 2022) using search terms dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, SGLT-2Is, HFmrEF, and HFpEF. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Eight completed, pertinent clinical trials were included. Data Synthesis: EMPEROR-Preserved, and DELIVER demonstrated that empagliflozin and dapagliflozin reduce CV death and heart failure hospitalization (HHF) in patients with HFmrEF and HFpEF, with/without diabetes when added to a standard heart failure (HF) regimen. The benefit is primarily due to reduction in HHF. Additional data from post hoc analyses of trials of dapagliflozin, ertugliflozin, and sotagliflozin suggest that these benefits may be a class effect. Benefits appear greatest in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction 41% up to about 65%. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: While many pharmacologic treatments have been proven to reduce mortality and improve cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in people with HFmrEF and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), there are few therapy which improve CV outcome in people with HFpEF. SGLT-2I become one of the first class of pharmacologic agent that can be used to reduce HHF and CV mortality. Conclusion: Studies showed that empagliflozin and dapagliflozin reduce the combined risk of CV death or HHF in patients with HFmrEF and HFpEF when added to a standard HF regimen. Given that benefit has now been demonstrated across the spectrum of HF, SGLT-2Is should be considered one of the standard HF pharmacotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1291-1301
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Pharmacotherapy
Issue number11
Early online dateFeb 17 2023
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction
  • heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
  • sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors
  • Stroke Volume
  • Heart Failure/drug therapy
  • Sodium
  • Ventricular Function, Left
  • Humans
  • Glucose/therapeutic use


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