spaceNtime: an R package for estimating abundance of unmarked animals using camera-trap photographs

Anna K. Moeller, Paul M. Lukacs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The space to event (STE), time to event (TTE), and instantaneous sampling (IS) methods were developed to estimate abundance of unmarked animals from camera trap images (Moeller et al. in Ecosphere 9(8):e02331, 2018). The space and time to event models use camera data in a different way than other abundance estimation methods do. Instead of using counts of animals over independent events, STE uses a measure of sampled space before the first detection of the target species, and TTE uses the time until the first detection. We introduce spaceNtime, a free and open-source R package designed to assist in the implementation of the STE and TTE models, along with the IS estimator. This package takes the user through the steps of transforming data, defining sampling effort, selecting sampling occasions, building encounter histories, and estimating abundance from camera data using these three methods. The package is designed for users with a baseline level of knowledge of R and statistics, without requiring expertise in either.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)581-590
Number of pages10
JournalMammalian Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Abundance
  • Camera trap
  • Density
  • Instantaneous sampling
  • Space to event
  • Time to event
  • Time-lapse photography
  • Unmarked animals


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