Testing of the maximal dynamic output hypothesis in trained and untrained subjects

James L. Nuzzo, Jeffrey M. McBride, Andrea M. Dayne, Michael A. Israetel, Charles L. Dumke, N. Travis Triplett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


The maximal dynamic output (MDO) hypothesis is a newly proposed concept, which suggests that the muscular system of the lower limbs is designed to produce maximal power output when performing countermovement vertical jumping (CMJ) at body mass as opposed to other loading conditions. However, it is unclear if the MDO concept can be applied to individuals with different levels of maximal strength. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if subjects, who have distinct differences in maximal strength, maximize CMJ power at body mass. Fourteen male strength-power trained subjects (squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM)-to-body mass ratio = 1.96 ± 0.24) and 6 untrained male subjects (squat 1RM-to-body mass ratio = 0.94 ± 0.18) completed CMJs with loads that were less than, equal to, and greater than body mass. Loads less than body mass were accomplished with a custom-designed unloading apparatus, and loads greater than body mass were accomplished with a barbell and weights. In both groups, mean values for CMJ peak and mean power were greatest during the body mass jump. Power outputs at body mass were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) than power outputs at various conditions of loading and unloading. These data support the MDO hypothesis and its application to individuals with significantly different 1RM-to-body mass ratios. Additionally, these data further support the idea that body mass CMJs are a theoretically sound way to train for power because of the maximal power outputs that are produced during this condition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1269-1276
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2010


  • Power
  • Strength
  • Unloading
  • Vertical jump


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