The psychometric properties of self-report outcome measures in temporomandibular dysfunction

Alicia J. Emerson Kavchak, John Jake Mischke, Kevin Lulofs-Macpherson, Ann M. Vendrely

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) demonstrates a variety of clinical manifestations. While there are some well-documented self-report outcome measures for diagnostics and screening of TMD, these scales are often not utilized in physical therapy (PT) when assessing the patient’s self-reported functional limitations and disability. Further, there is a lack of understanding of which self-report outcome measures in TMD have sound psychometric properties. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the psychometric properties of commonly used self-reported outcome measures in adults with TMD undergoing conservative management. Methods: A comprehensive and systematic search of articles published in PubMed, CINAHL, Dentistry and Oral Science, and PsycINFO databases through June 2013 was completed. Inclusion criteria included (1) any article that described the psychometric properties of a self-report outcome measure utilized in TMD, (2) subjects were adults.18 years, and (3) the full text article was available in English. Major Findings: Thirteen articles were discovered with eight reporting psychometric analysis. Ten studies reported on reliability, with good internal consistency noted but test–retest reliability varied greatly. Face and content validity was reported for most measures; only 50% of the studies reported on construct validity. Other psychometric concepts such as responsiveness, duration to administer, feasibility, interpretability, and acceptability were less reported. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review demonstrate that eight non-diagnostic self-report outcome measures in adults diagnosed with TMD have undergone some psychometric development or analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-185
Number of pages12
JournalPhysical Therapy Reviews
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014


  • Outcome measures
  • Psychometric properties
  • Self-report outcomes
  • Temporomandibular dysfunction


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