We have determined the pharmacological activity of N-hydroxypyrazole analogues (3a and 4a) of the classical glutamate receptor ligands ibotenic acid and (RS)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)acetic acid (AMAA), as well as substituted derivatives of these two compounds. The pharmacological profile of 3a is closer to that of thioibotenic acid rather than ibotenic acid, while 4a is a selective N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor agonist. Ring substitution of 3a and 4a leads to NMDA receptor antagonists. Whereas efficacy of 3a derivatives at mglu 2 receptor decreases from agonism via partial agonism to antagonism with increasing substituent size, substitution abolishes affinity for mglu 1 and mglu 4 receptors. Ligand- and receptor-based modelling approaches assist in explaining these pharmacological trends among the metabotropic receptors and suggest a mechanism of partial agonism at mglu 2 receptor similar to that proposed for the GluR2 glutamate receptor.
- Glutamate receptor
- Ibotenic acid
- Metabotropic glutamate receptor
- Partial agonism