Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the Phenuiviridae family that infects both domestic livestock and humans. The NIAID has designated RVFV as a Category A priority emerging pathogen due to the devastating public health outcomes associated with epidemic outbreaks. However, there is no licensed treatment or vaccine approved for human use. Therefore it is of great interest to understand RVFV pathogenesis in infected hosts in order to facilitate creation of targeted therapies and treatment options. Here we provide insight into the host-pathogen interface in human HEK293 cells during RVFV MP-12 strain infection using high-throughput mRNA sequencing technology. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of differentially expressed genes showed robust innate immune and cytokine-mediated inflammatory pathway activation as well as alterations in pathways associated with fatty acid metabolism and extracellular matrix receptor signaling. We also analyzed the promoter regions of DEGs for patterns in transcription factor binding sites, and found several that are known to act synergistically to impact apoptosis, immunity, metabolism, and cell growth and differentiation. Lastly, we noted dramatic changes in host alternative splicing patterns in genes associated with mRNA decay and surveillance, RNA transport, and DNA repair. This study has improved our understanding of RVFV pathogenesis and has provided novel insight into pathways and signaling modules important for RVFV diagnostics and therapeutic development.