Trauma and its consequences in Iran: cross-cultural adaption and validation of the Global Psychotrauma Screen in a representative sample

Yahya Salimi, C. Hoeboer, Seyed Ali Motevalli Haghi, R. E. Williamson, Mohammad Dawood Rahimi, Nader Rajabi-Gilan, Ali Almasi, M. Olff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Potentially traumatic events may lead to the development of a wide range of adverse psychological responses, including symptoms of anxiety, depression, and (complex) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite the high prevalence of potentially traumatic events in Iran, there is no population data nor evidence-based instrument to screen for cross-diagnostic psychological responses to trauma. The Global Psychotrauma Screen (GPS) is a transdiagnostic self-report instrument for the detection of trauma-related symptoms, as well as risk and protective factors related to the impact of potentially traumatic events. Objective: The present study seeks to 1) translate and cross-culturally adapt the GPS in the Persian (Farsi) language and 2) examine the psychometric properties of the Persian GPS. Method: The translation and adaptation were performed using the Sousa and Rojjanasrirat (2011) method. A pilot study (n = 30) was carried out to test the content validity and test–retest reliability of the GPS. Next, in a representative sample (n = 800) of residents of Kermanshah City, the GPS, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) were administered. Construct validity of the Persian GPS was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, we evaluated the convergent validity and internal consistency of the GPS. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a three-factor model as the best solution with factors representing 1) Negative Affect, 2) Core PTSD symptoms and 3) Dissociative symptoms. The GPS total symptom score had high internal consistency and high convergent validity with related measures. A GPS total symptom cut-off score of nine was optimal for indicating a probable PTSD diagnosis based on the PCL-5. About half (52%) of the current sample met criteria for probable PTSD. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that the GPS can be effectively adapted for use in a non-Western society and, specifically, that the Persian GPS represents a useful, reliable and valid tool for screening of trauma-related symptoms in Iran.

Original languageEnglish
Article number65
Pages (from-to)65
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 25 2023


The study was funded by Kermanshah University of medical science [Grant No. 97718]. This research was supported by Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS). We thank our colleagues from KUMS and Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research.

FundersFunder number
Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences97718


    • Anxiety
    • Complex PTSD
    • Depression
    • PTSD
    • Psychotrauma
    • Screening
    • Reproducibility of Results
    • Humans
    • Psychometrics
    • Pilot Projects
    • Cross-Cultural Comparison
    • Iran
    • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis


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