Understanding Hunting Constraints and Negotiation Strategies: A Typology of Female Hunters

Elizabeth Covelli Metcalf, Alan R. Graefe, Nate E. Trauntvein, Robert C. Burns

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


This article examined a typology of female hunters, factors constraining participation, and negotiation strategies females used to overcome constraints. A survey of Oregon hunters was conducted in the summer of 2010 to understand hunting characteristics using the 2008 big game license database (n = 392). We created a typology of female hunters using a cluster analysis of Recreation Experience Preference items. Four clusters were identified: less-engaged, family oriented, nature-sport, and all around enthusiast. Analysis of variance revealed differences among female hunter segments. Differences existed among the four groups on both constraints and negotiation strategies. One of the notable groups was the family-oriented hunter. This type of hunter was the most likely to perceive constraints and the most likely to utilize negotiation strategies to increase their participation in hunting. Findings reveal nuanced differences between types of female hunters. These findings can assist managers with outreach strategies and facilitate future female hunting participation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30-46
Number of pages17
JournalHuman Dimensions of Wildlife
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2015


  • constraints
  • gender
  • hunter typology


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