This study examined and compared the perceived constraints and use of constraint negotiation strategies of non-traditional national forest recreationists (those who reported their race and ethnicity to be other than Caucasian). The study provides insight into the reasons why ethnic groups might not participate in forest recreation as often as Caucasian users. Data were collected through an on-site survey of visitors at the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (MBSNF), an urban-proximate forest near Seattle, Washington, USA. Non-traditional users were divided into two groups: Asians and other subcultures. Overall, Asians tended to be more constrained than the "other" non-traditional users, who in turn were more constrained than the traditional Caucasian visitors. Cultural and information-related reasons were more constraining for non-traditional users. Constraint negotiation strategies most commonly employed by the non-traditional users involved time management approaches such as planning ahead, setting aside time for outdoor recreation activities, and trying to fit recreation around other commitments. Managers of forest recreation sites near urban areas should be aware of the different cultures visiting the forests, and make concerted efforts to encourage different ethnic and racial groups to visit. Efforts focusing on better information and transportation options may be most effective in helping non-traditional users to pursue forest recreation opportunities.
- Non-traditional users
- Outdoor recreation participation
- Urban forests