In the face of heighted competition, organizations need to continuously improve their competitive advantage. Both knowledge management (KM) and knowledge management systems (KMS) play a pivotal role in helping organizations to stay competitive. There is much research in KMS, however very little is known about how they affect individual and organizational performance. Drawing on task-technology fit theory (Goodhue and Thompson, 1995), this study explores the fit or alignment between business process (task) and KMS (technology) and its impact on KMS utilization based on multiple case studies. Subsequently, the impacts of both the task-technology fit and KMS utilization on individual and business performance are investigated. This paper contributes to the KM literature in several ways. First, it applies task-technology fit theory to an important context, that of KM. Second, it characterizes task as business processes which have the potential to help explain KMS success on business performance. Third, the paper explores the positive impact of task-technology fit on KMS utilization and business performance. Fourth, the study provides insight into the future development of KMS which are better aligned with managerial purposes.