"When in Doubt, Change It out": A Case-Based Simulation for Pediatric Residents Caring for Hospitalized Tracheostomy-Dependent Children

Erin K. Khan, Tai M. Lockspeiser, Deborah R. Liptzin, Maxene Meier, Christopher D. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Introduction: Caring for technology-dependent children, such as those with tracheostomy and ventilator dependence, can be new and frightening for pediatric residents. Education about emergencies in this patient population is important because these children are at risk for in-hospital complications. Safe care of the tracheostomy-dependent child requires the ability to recognize common complications, such as tracheostomy tube obstruction or decannulation, and intervene appropriately by suctioning and/or replacing the tracheostomy tube. This simulation-based curriculum teaches learners to identify and practice the management of these tracheostomy tube complications through low-fidelity simulation exercises. Methods: We created a simulation session with three cases reflecting in-hospital scenarios encountered by resident physicians caring for tracheostomy-dependent children in the inpatient setting. The simulation scenario, simulation environment preparation, materials list, and debriefing outline are provided for the instructor for each simulation case. Validity evidence for the assessment tool was obtained by calculating the interrater reliability of two different raters. Resident feedback was obtained through anonymous surveys. Results: Twelve pediatric senior residents completed the experience. It received overwhelmingly positive feedback on learner evaluation forms, with 90% finding the experience very or extremely helpful. The intraclass correlation coefficient of interrater reliability for our assessment tool was 0.93. Discussion: The simulation was well received by residents. The interrater reliability was acceptable. This low-fidelity simulation exercise can easily be executed with minimal materials or instructor training. High-yield, just-in-time training with postcase debriefing is key to the simulation's success.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10994
Number of pages1
JournalMedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020


  • Case-Based Learning
  • Clinical Reasoning/Diagnostic Reasoning
  • Low Fidelity
  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
  • Pediatric Pulmonology
  • Pediatrics
  • Pulmonology
  • Simulation
  • Tracheostomy


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